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Carl's published research of the Internet and social media

The 101 of Disinformation Detection

Not every organisation can or should become a disinformation detective. But disinformation can threaten the activities, objectives and individuals associated with civil society groups and their work. Disinformation tactics and the responses in place to try to mitigate them online are changing rapidly. Organisations witnessing or targeted by disinformation therefore require a baseline understanding of the threats posed by disinformation and how to spot them while conducting their work. This toolkit sets out simple steps to do so.

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Warring Songs: Information Operations in the Digital Age

We find that the widely held focus on ‘fake news’ is overblown. Data analysis of content targeting Germany, Italy and France found the news stories used to be overwhelmingly from reputable sources. Information operations frequently involve tactics not easily fact-checked: the selective amplification of reputable, mainstream media stories to fit an agenda, harassment, abuse, emotional manipulation and poisoning of channels of communication.

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The Rise of Digital Politics

A research pamphlet presenting new evidence on the shift in political participation and debate to online spaces. 

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Radical Beliefs and Violent Behaviour

A chapter reviewing the evidence of the relationship between violent beliefs and violent behaviour, ideas and action.

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The Rise of Real-time Research

Chapter on an opportunity that social media research presents: the ability to research phenomena quickly enough to intervene within those phenomena themselves.

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Gambling and Social Media

Research on the scale, nature and network of conversations related to gambling that now happen across a number of different spaces within the digital world

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Social Action on Social Media

A NESTA working paper presenting a new method for identify 'under the radar' social action as it occurs on social media.

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Vox Digitas: Understanding Digital Voices 

How social media research is transforming social science

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Heads up: Bitcoin

2013 briefing paper on the rise of crypto-currencies and the regulatory and legal challenges that they pose. 

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Paper arguing that police forces are inundated with both vital and useless information on social media.

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Introducing Social Media Intelligence

Academic journal article written with former Director of GCHQ, Sir David Omand, coining 'SOCMINT' - social media intelligence.

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Truth, Lies and the Internet

Research paper surveying the skills of young people to critically assess the content they encounter online.

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The Power of Unreason

Research paper on the role of conspiracy theories as a 'radicalising multiplier'.

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Developing a Civil Society Response to Online Manipulation

This document presents a vision for a pan-civil societal response to online manipulation. In part, it argues, this will come down to capability: building a pooled detection capacity to function as a transparent, public interest alter­native to those built by the tech giants. In part, it will require new organisational philosophies and forms of co-operation, and in part new approaches to funding and support.

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Detecting Online 

Environmental Crime

This report presents a new technical process that has been trialled to identify online marketplaces and websites involved in the trade of a selection of CITES-listed animals and plants. 

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Islamophobia on Twitter

Work using natural language processing and machine learning to analyse the number of derogatory, hateful Tweets about Muslims.

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The General Election on Twitter

A chapter reviewing the impact, major events, character and nature of the 2015 General Election on Twitter

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Addressing Quality in Social Media Research

Chapter co-authored with Ipsos MORI on social media research methodology and representative research.

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The Road to Representivity

A paper co-authored with Ipsos MORI presenting a new methodology for representative attitudinal research on social media.

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Question of Trust

Research of how social media is changing trust in institutions, and suggesting a new way it can be researched.

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Detecting Events on Social Media

Book chapter on a new methodology for detecting events and achieving situational awareness using social media data.

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Social Media Intelligence

Review of technologies and methods for social media intelligence for counter-terrorism.

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Policing in an Information Age

Paper describing the widespread impacts of the digital revolution to the opportunities and challenges faced by the police.

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Digital Fluency

Academic journal article calling for 'digital literacy' education for young users of the Internet.

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The Edge of Violence

Major academic research project understanding the difference between violent and non-violent radicalisation. 

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Is it possible and preferable to negotiate with terrorists?

Published masters' dissertation on whether negotiation with terrorists is possible, and in the strategic interests of the West to do. 

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